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Day after day he was bringing less and lesstrees. He went to the boss and apologized,saying that he could not understand what was going on. I had no time to sharpenmy axe. I have been very busy trying to cut trees. If we are just busy in applying for jobs, when we will sharpen our skills to chase the job selection process?
I got irritated like anything. Ithought that like me, there may be millions of my brothers and sisters across the nation facing same kindof problem. Similarly short literal also. Floating point literal is by default double type but we can specify explicitly as float type by suffixing with f or F. The only allowed values for the boolean type are true or false where case is important. We can specify that integral literal either in decimal or octal or hexadecimal form but allowed values range is 0 to Every escape character in java acts as a char literal.
Any sequence of characters with in double quotes is treated as String literal.
The following 2 are enhansements 1. Binary Literals 2. For the integral data types untill 1. Decimal 2. Octal 3. The allowed digits are 0 to 1. Literal value should be prefixed with Ob or OB.
From 1. Introduction An array is an indexed collection of fixed number of homogeneous data elements. The main advantage of arrays is we can represent multiple values with the same name so that readability of the code will be improved. But the main disadvantage of arrays is: Fixed in size that is once we created an array there is no chance of increasing or decreasing the size based on our requirement that is to use arrays concept compulsory we should know the size in advance which may not possible always.
We can resolve this problem by using collections. Array declarations: Single dimensional array declaration: If we want to specify the dimension before the variable that rule is applicable only for the 1st variable.
Second variable onwards we can't apply in the same declaration. Array construction: Every array in java is an object hence we can create by using new operator. For every array type corresponding classes are available but these classes are part of java language and not available to the programmer level.
At the time of array creation compulsory we should specify the size otherwise we will get compile time error. It is legal to have an array with size zero in java. If we are taking array size with -ve int value then we will get runtime exception saying NegativeArraySizeException. NegativeArraySizeException Rule 4: The allowed data types to specify array size are byte, short, char, int.
By mistake if we are using any other type we will get compile time error. The maximum allowed array size in java is maximum value of int size . Multi dimensional array creation: In java multidimensional arrays are implemented as array of arrays approach but not matrix form. The main advantage of this approach is to improve memory utilization.
Example 2: Which of the following declarations are valid? Whenever we are trying to print any object reference internally toString method will be executed which is implemented by default to return the following.
Example 3: NullPointerException Diagram: If we are not satisfied with those default values then we can replays with our customized values. Declaration, construction and initialization of an array in a single line: We can perform declaration, construction and initialization of an array in a single line.
It is the final variable applicable only for arrays. It represents the size of the array. It is a final method applicable for String objects. It returns the no of characters present in the String. There is no direct way to find total size of multi dimentional array but indirectly we can find as follows x[o].
Anonymous Arrays: Array element assignments: Case 1: In the case of primitive array as array element any type is allowed which can be promoted to declared type. For the int type arrays the allowed array element types are byte, short, char, int. For float type arrays the allowed element types are byte, short, char, int, long, float.
Case 2: In the case of Object type arrays as array elements we can provide either declared type objects or its child class objects.
Case 3: In the case of interface type arrays as array elements we can provide its implemented class objects. Array variable assignments: A char value can be promoted to int type but char array cannot be promoted to int array. In the case of object type arrays child type array can be assign to parent type array variable.
Whenever we are assigning one array to another array internal elements won't be copy just reference variables will be reassigned hence sizes are not important but types must be matched.
Whenever we are assigning one array to another array dimensions must be matched that is in the place of one dimensional array we should provide the same type only otherwise we will get compile time error.
Whenever we are performing array assignments the types and dimensions must be matched but sizes are not important. Total how many objects created? A B Types of Variables Division 1: Based on the type of value represented by a variable all variables are divided into 2 types. They are: Primitive variables 2. Primitive variables can be used to represent primitive values.
Reference variables can be used to refer objects. Division 2: Based on the behaviour and position of declaration all variables are divided into the following 3 types.
Instance variables 2. Static variables 3. Local variables Instance variables: But cannot be accessed directly from static area. Locate find Test. Load Test. Execution of main method. Unload Test.
Terminate main Thread. Shutdown JVM. Local variables: Some times to meet temporary requirements of the programmer we can declare variables inside a method or block or constructors such type of variables are called local variables or automatic variables or temporary variables or stack variables. Local variables will be stored inside stack.
The local variables will be created as part of the block execution in which it is declared and destroyed once that block execution completes. Hence the scope of the local variables is exactly same as scope of the block in which we declared. Note: The only applicable modifier for local variables is final.
If we are using any other modifier we will get compile time error. For the static and instance variables it is not required to perform initialization explicitly JVM will provide default values.
For every object a separate copy of instance variable will be created whereas for entire class a single copy of static variable will be created. For every Thread a separate copy of local variable will be created. Instance and static variables can be accessed by multiple Threads simultaneously and hence these are not Thread safe but local variables can be accessed by only one Thread at a time and hence local variables are Thread safe.
If we are not declaring any modifier explicitly then it means default modifier but this rule is applicable only for static and instance variables but not local variable. E: variable a might not have been initialized System. Every variable in java should be either instance or static or local. Every variable in java should be either primitive or reference Hence the following are the various possible combinations for variables Var- arg methods variable no of argument methods 1.
Of arguments. Of arguments such type of methods are called var-arg methods. We can call or invoke this method by passing any no. Of int values including zero number also. Example: methodOne int a,int Example: methodOne int Case 6: For the var-arg methods we can provide the corresponding type array as argument. Cannot declare both methodOne int Note : 1. Even though above syntax is very strict but the following changes are acceptable to main method.
The order of modifiers is not important that is instead of public static we can take static public. We can declare string in any acceptable form o String args o String args o String args 3. Instead of args we can use any valid java identifier. We can replace string with var-arg parameter. Example: main String No case, in all the cases we will get runtime exception. Case 1 : Overloading of the main method is possible but JVM always calls string argument main method only.
Case 2: Inheritance concept is applicable for static methods including main method hence while executing child class if the child class doesn't contain main method then the parent class main method will be executed.
The main objective of command line arguments are we can customize the behavior of the main method. Serializable 2. Runnable 3. Example: Syntax for setter method: 1. Method name should be prefixed with set. It should be public. Return type should be void. Compulsory it should take some argument.
Syntax for getter method: 1. The method name should be prefixed with get. Return type should not be void. It is always no argument method. But recommended to use is.
Example: Coding standards for listeners: To register a listener: Method name should be prefixed with add. Class level binary data includung static variables will be stored in method area. Objects and corresponding instance variables will be stored in Heap area.