Department of Industrial Engineering and Operations Research . These lecture notes were written during the Fall/Spring /14 semesters. Optimisation and Operations Research Lecture Notes. Lecture 01, slides [PDF] · links · outline, Introduction and Course Summary. Lecture We would like to acknowledge Prof. W.L. Winston's "Operations Research: Applications and. Algorithms" and Prof. J.E. Beasley's lecture notes which greatly .
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The British/Europeans refer to "operational research", the Americans to Therefore, to give a formal definition of the term Operations Research is a difficult task. The significance of the role played by Operations Research in the . NOTES. INTRODUCTION. Operational Research, or simply OR, originated in the context of. The slides used in presentation of the lectures are available for downloading in. pdf (Portable Document Format) and were produced by Adobe.
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Probability and Statistics 1. Step 3. Formulate a Mathematical Model of the Problem The analyst, then, develops a mathematical model in other words an idealized representation of the problem.
In this class, we describe many mathematical techniques that can be used to model systems. Verify the Model and Use the Model for Prediction The analyst now tries to determine if the mathematical model developed in Step 3 is an accurate representation of reality. To determine how well the model fits reality, one determines how valid the model is for the current situation.
Step 5. Select a Suitable Alternative Given a model and a set of alternatives, the analyst chooses the alternative if there is one that best meets the organization's objectives. Sometimes the set of alternatives is subject to certain restrictions and constraints. In many situations, the best alternative may be impossible or too costly to determine.
Step 6. Present the Results and Conclusions of the Study In this step, the analyst presents the model and the recommendations from Step 5 to the decision making individual or group. This may result from incorrect definition of the problem on hand or from failure to involve decision maker s from the start of the project. In this case, the analyst should return to Step 1, 2, or 3. Step 7. Implement and Evaluate Recommendation If the decision maker s has accepted the study, the analyst aids in implementing the recommendations.
Whereas 70 years ago it would have been possible to study mathematics, physics or engineering for example at university it would not have been possible to study OR, indeed the term OR did not exist then. It was only really in the late 's that operational research began in a systematic fashion, and it started in the UK. Experimental radar equipment was brought up to a high state of reliability and ranges of over miles on aircraft were obtained.
It lacked however any effective fighter aircraft - no Hurricanes or Spitfires had come into service - and no radar data was yet fed into its very elementary warning and control system.
It had become clear that radar would create a whole new series of problems in fighter direction and control so in late some experiments started at Biggin Hill in Kent into the effective use of such data. This early work, attempting to integrate radar data with ground based observer data for fighter interception, was the start of OR.
The first of three major pre-war air-defense exercises was carried out in the summer of The experimental radar station at Bawdsey Research Station was brought into operation and the information derived from it was fed into the general air-defense warning and control system. From the early warning point of view this exercise was encouraging, but the tracking information obtained from radar, after filtering and transmission through the control and display network, was not very satisfactory.
In July a second major air-defense exercise was carried out. Four additional radar stations had been installed along the coast and it was hoped that Britain now had an aircraft location and control system greatly improved both in coverage and effectiveness.
Not so! The exercise revealed, rather, that a new and serious problem had arisen.
This was the need to coordinate and correlate the additional, and often conflicting, information received from the additional radar stations. With the out-break of war apparently imminent, it was obvious that something new - drastic if necessary - had to be attempted. Some new approach was needed. Rowe, announced that although the exercise had again demonstrated the technical feasibility of the radar system for detecting aircraft, its operational achievements still fell far short of requirements.
He therefore proposed that a crash program of research into the operational - as opposed to the technical - aspects of the system should begin immediately.
The first team was selected from amongst the scientists of the radar research group the same day. It involved some 33, men, 1, aircraft, antiaircraft guns, searchlights, and barrage balloons.